Enjoying this article?

Join our newsletter


  1. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. (Published 22 November 2017). BMJ 2017;359:j5024
  2. Park JB. Javamide-II Found in Coffee Is Better than Caffeine at Suppressing TNF-α Production in PMA/PHA-Treated Lymphocytic Jurkat Cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jul 5;66(26):6782-6789. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b01885. Epub 2018 Jun 22. PMID: 29888601.
  3. Alves AO, Weis GCC, Unfer TC, Assmann CE, Barbisan F, Azzolin VF, Chitolina B, Duarte T, Ribeiro-Filho EE, Duarte MMMF, Boligon A, Vélez-Martin E, Palma TV, de Andrade CM, da Cruz IBM. Caffeinated beverages contribute to a more efficient inflammatory response: Evidence from human and earthworm immune cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Dec;134:110809. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110809. Epub 2019 Sep 6. PMID: 31499124.
  4. Zhang Y, Zhang DZ. Is coffee consumption associated with a lower level of serum C-reactive protein? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Dec;69(8):985-994. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2018.1433640. Epub 2018 Feb 6. PMID: 29405789.
  5. Zhang Y, Zhang DZ. Associations of coffee consumption with circulating level of adiponectin and leptin. A meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Dec;69(8):1003-1012. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2018.1445202. Epub 2018 Mar 7. PMID: 29513118.
  6. Liu JJ, Crous-Bou M, Giovannucci E, De Vivo I. Coffee Consumption Is Positively Associated with Longer Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Nurses' Health Study. J Nutr. 2016 Jul;146(7):1373-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.230490. Epub 2016 Jun 8. PMID: 27281805; PMCID: PMC4926853.
  7. Tucker LA. Caffeine consumption and telomere length in men and women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Jan 31;14:10. doi: 10.1186/s12986-017-0162-x. PMID: 28603543; PMCID: PMC5465534.
  8. Park JB. Finding Potent Sirt Inhibitor in Coffee: Isolation, Confirmation and Synthesis of Javamide-II (N-Caffeoyltryptophan) as Sirt1/2 Inhibitor. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 17;11(3):e0150392. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150392. PMID: 26986569; PMCID: PMC4795788.
  9. Lee WJ, Zhu BT. Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Feb;27(2):269-77. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgi206. Epub 2005 Aug 4. PMID: 16081510.
  10. Naveed M, Hejazi V, Abbas M, Kamboh AA, Khan GJ, Shumzaid M, Ahmad F, Babazadeh D, FangFang X, Modarresi-Ghazani F, WenHua L, XiaoHui Z. Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A pharmacological review and call for further research. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.064. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PMID: 29080460.
  11. Mills CE, Oruna-Concha MJ, Mottram DS, Gibson GR, Spencer JP. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee. Food Chem. 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3335-40. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.014. Epub 2013 Jun 13. PMID: 23993490.
  12. Svilaas A, Sakhi AK, Andersen LF, Svilaas T, Ström EC, Jacobs DR Jr, Ose L, Blomhoff R. Intakes of antioxidants in coffee, wine, and vegetables are correlated with plasma carotenoids in humans. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):562-7. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.3.562. PMID: 14988447.
  13. Pulido R, Hernández-García M, Saura-Calixto F. Contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;57(10):1275-82. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601685. PMID: 14506489.
  14. Ovaskainen ML, Törrönen R, Koponen JM, Sinkko H, Hellström J, Reinivuo H, Mattila P. Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in Finnish adults. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):562-6. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.3.562. PMID: 18287367.
  15. Fukushima Y, Tashiro T, Kumagai A, Ohyanagi H, Horiuchi T, Takizawa K, Sugihara N, Kishimoto Y, Taguchi C, Tani M, Kondo K. Coffee and beverages are the major contributors to polyphenol consumption from food and beverages in Japanese middle-aged women. J Nutr Sci. 2014 Oct 22;3:e48. doi: 10.1017/jns.2014.19. PMID: 26101616; PMCID: PMC4473170.
  16. Rothwell JA, Urpi-Sarda M, Boto-Ordoñez M, Knox C, Llorach R, Eisner R, Cruz J, Neveu V, Wishart D, Manach C, Andres-Lacueva C, Scalbert A. Phenol-Explorer 2.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database integrating data on polyphenol metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans and experimental animals. Database (Oxford). 2012 Aug 9;2012:bas031. doi: 10.1093/database/bas031. PMID: 22879444; PMCID: PMC3414821.
  17. Pérez-Jiménez J, Fezeu L, Touvier M, Arnault N, Manach C, Hercberg S, Galan P, Scalbert A. Dietary intake of 337 polyphenols in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;93(6):1220-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.007096. Epub 2011 Apr 13. PMID: 21490142.
  18. Zujko ME, Witkowska AM, Waśkiewicz A, Sygnowska E. Estimation of dietary intake and patterns of polyphenol consumption in Polish adult population. Adv Med Sci. 2012;57(2):375-84. doi: 10.2478/v10039-012-0026-6. PMID: 22968335.
  19. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ, Ali A. The Effect of Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2018 Aug;48(8):1913-1928. doi: 10.1007/s40279-018-0939-8. Erratum in: Sports Med. 2018 Aug 9;: PMID: 29876876.
  20. Grgic J, Trexler ET, Lazinica B, Pedisic Z. Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Mar 5;15:11. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0216-0. PMID: 29527137; PMCID: PMC5839013.
  21. Pickering C, Grgic J. Caffeine and Exercise: What Next? Sports Med. 2019 Jul;49(7):1007-1030. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01101-0. PMID: 30977054; PMCID: PMC6548757.
  22. Porrini M, Del Boʼ C. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements. Front Horm Res. 2016;47:128-52. doi: 10.1159/000445176. Epub 2016 Jun 27. PMID: 27348226.
  23. Davis JK, Green JM. Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med. 2009;39(10):813-32. doi: 10.2165/11317770-000000000-00000. PMID: 19757860.
  24. Pingitore A, Lima GP, Mastorci F, Quinones A, Iervasi G, Vassalle C. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports. Nutrition. 2015 Jul-Aug;31(7-8):916-22. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.005. Epub 2015 Feb 19. PMID: 26059364.
  25. Somerville V, Bringans C, Braakhuis A. Polyphenols and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2017 Aug;47(8):1589-1599. doi: 10.1007/s40279-017-0675-5. Erratum in: Sports Med. 2017 Aug;47(8):1601. PMID: 28097488.
  26. Dias GP, Cavegn N, Nix A, do Nascimento Bevilaqua MC, Stangl D, Zainuddin MS, Nardi AE, Gardino PF, Thuret S. The role of dietary polyphenols on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: molecular mechanisms and behavioural effects on depression and anxiety. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:541971. doi: 10.1155/2012/541971. Epub 2012 Jun 28. PMID: 22829957; PMCID: PMC3395274.
  27. Wang L, Shen X, Wu Y, Zhang D. Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;50(3):228-42. doi: 10.1177/0004867415603131. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PMID: 26339067.
  28. Grosso G, Micek A, Castellano S, Pajak A, Galvano F. Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jan;60(1):223-34. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500620. Epub 2015 Nov 23. PMID: 26518745.
  29. Unnikrishnan A, Freeman WM, Jackson J, Wren JD, Porter H, Richardson A. The role of DNA methylation in epigenetics of aging. Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Mar;195:172-185. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Nov 9. PMID: 30419258; PMCID: PMC6397707.
  30. Jones MJ, Goodman SJ, Kobor MS. DNA methylation and healthy human aging. Aging Cell. 2015 Dec;14(6):924-32. doi: 10.1111/acel.12349. Epub 2015 Apr 25. PMID: 25913071; PMCID: PMC4693469.
  31. Skvortsova K, Stirzaker C, Taberlay P. The DNA methylation landscape in cancer. Essays Biochem. 2019 Dec 20;63(6):797-811. doi: 10.1042/EBC20190037. PMID: 31845735; PMCID: PMC6923322.
  32. Won Jun Lee, Bao Ting Zhu, Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols, Carcinogenesis, Volume 27, Issue 2, February 2006, Pages 269–277, https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgi206.
  33. Chuang, Y. H., Quach, A., Absher, D., Assimes, T., Horvath, S., & Ritz, B. (2017). Coffee consumption is associated with DNA methylation levels of human blood. European journal of human genetics : EJHG25(5), 608–616. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2016.175
  34. Heitman E, Ingram DK. Cognitive and neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid. Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jan;20(1):32-39. doi: 10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000146. Epub 2016 Mar 10. PMID: 25130715.
  35. Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando, and Trang T J Nguyen. “Natural mood foods: the actions of polyphenols against psychiatric and cognitive disorders.” Nutritional neuroscience 15,3 (2012): 127-33. doi:10.1179/1476830511Y.0000000035
  36. Spencer JP, Vafeiadou K, Williams RJ, Vauzour D. Neuroinflammation: modulation by flavonoids and mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med. 2012 Feb;33(1):83-97. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2011.10.016. Epub 2011 Nov 15. PMID: 22107709.
  37. Acosta S, Jernberg J, Sanberg CD, Sanberg PR, Small BJ, Gemma C, Bickford PC. NT-020, a natural therapeutic approach to optimize spatial memory performance and increase neural progenitor cell proliferation and decrease inflammation in the aged rat. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Oct;13(5):581-8. doi: 10.1089/rej.2009.1011. Epub 2010 Jun 29. PMID: 20586644; PMCID: PMC3014764.
  38. Ammar, Achraf et al. “Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions on Cognition and Brain Health in Healthy Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of clinical medicine 9,5 1598. 25 May. 2020, doi:10.3390/jcm9051598
  39. https://magazine.scienceconnected.org/2016/03/living-on-nothing-but-coffee/
  40. Kolb H, Kempf K, Martin S. Health Effects of Coffee: Mechanism Unraveled? Nutrients. 2020 Jun 20;12(6):1842. doi: 10.3390/nu12061842. PMID: 32575704; PMCID: PMC7353358.
  41. Is It Time to Write a Prescription for Coffee? Coffee and Liver Disease. Journal of Gastroenterology. Dawn M. Torres, Stephen A. Harrison. Published: February 22, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.02.015

(ps: love the fact Shopify thinks this is apparently a 6 minute read!)

Leave a comment

All comments are moderated before being published.

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

Reading next

Coffee, a healthy obsession